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Terms starting with 'H'
H
A NASDAQ stock symbol specifying that it is the second preferred bond of the company.

H-Shares
A share of a Chinese company listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

Haircut
1. The difference between prices at which a market maker can buy and sell a security.

2. The percentage by which an asset's market value is reduced for the purpose of calculating capital requirement, margin, and collateral levels.

Half Stock
A stock with a par value of $50.

Hammer
A price pattern in candlestick charting that occurs when a security trades significantly lower than its opening, but rallies later in the day to close either above or close to its opening price. This pattern forms a hammer-shaped candlestick.
Illustration for Hammer

Hammering
The rapid and concentrated sale of a stock thought to be overvalued by the market.

Handle
The whole dollar price, or stem, of a quote.

Hands-Off Investor
An investor who accepts a passive management role in a company, even while holding a large portion of the company's stock.

Hands-On Investor
An investor who holds a large portion of a company's shares and takes an active management role.

Hang Seng
An index of the leading stocks on the Hong Kong stock market.

Harami Cross
A trend indicated by a large candlestick followed by a doji that is located within the top and bottom of the candlestick's body. This indicates that the previous trend is about to reverse.
Illustration for Harami Cross


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Hard Call Protection
The period in the life of a callable bond in which the issuing company is not permitted to redeem the bond.

Hard Currency
A currency, usually from a highly industrialized country, that is widely accepted around the world.

Hard Landing
A term used to describe an economy going into recession as the government attempts to slow down inflation.

Hard Loan
A foreign loan that must be paid in the currency of a nation that has stability and a reputation abroad for economic strength (a hard currency).

Hard Money
1. Government and organizations refer to this as funding that is repetitive, not a one time grant or gift.

2. Describes gold/silver/platinum (bullion) coins.

Hard-To-Borrow List
A list used by brokerages to indicate securities considered difficult or unavailable to borrow for short selling transactions.

Hardening
1. A term used to describe a price of commodity or futures contracts that is gradually stabilizing.

2. A futures market that is slowly advancing in prices.

Harmonic Average
The mean of a set of positive variables. Calculated by dividing the number of observations by the reciprocal of each number in the series.

Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices - HICP
An inflation indicator used by the European Central Bank.

Haurlan Index
A technical analysis indicator, developed by P.N. Haurlan, that is used to detect market breadth. There are three components of the Haurlan index:


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Hawk
An economic policy advisor who has negative view towards inflation and its effects on society.

Hazard Insurance
Insurance protecting a property owner against damages caused by fires or severe storms. If the owner lives in an area that is prone to natural disasters, like earthquakes and floods, he or she may need a separate policy.

Head and Shoulders Pattern
A technical analysis term used to describe a chart formation in which a stock's price:
Illustration for Head and Shoulders Pattern

Head of Household
Someone who is unmarried and resides with a dependent.

Headline Earnings
A basis for measuring earnings per share implemented by the Institute of Investment Management and Research. This method accounts for all the profits and losses from operational, trading, and interest activities, that have been discontinued or acquired at any point during the year. Excluded from this figure are profits or losses associated with the sale or termination of discontinued operations, fixed assets or related businesses, or from any permanent devaluation or write off of their values.

Heads of Agreement
A non-binding document outlining the main issues relevant to a tentative partnership agreement.

Heath-Jarrow-Morton Model - HJM Model
A model that applies forward rates to an existing term structure of interest rates to determine appropriate prices for securities that are sensitive to changes in interest rates.

Heavy
A term used to describe a futures market showing difficulty in advancing or a tendency to decline.

Hedge
Making an investment to reduce the risk of adverse price movements in an asset. Normally, a hedge consists of taking an offsetting position in a related security, such as a futures contract.

Hedge Fund
An aggressively managed fund portfolio taking positions in both safe and speculative opportunities.


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Hedge Ratio
1. A ratio comparing the amount you are hedging with the size of the position being hedged against.

2. A ratio comparing the value of futures contracts purchased or sold versus the value of the cash commodity being hedged against.

Hedged Tender
A strategy in a tender offer where an investor short sells a portion of the shares they own. This is to protect against the risk of loss in the event that the tender offer does not go through.

Hedonic Pricing
A model identifying price factors according to the premise that price is determined both by internal characteristics of the good and external factors affecting it.

Heir
A person who inherits some or all of the estate of a recently deceased person. The legal successor is usually selected because they are related to the deceased by a direct bloodline or have been designated in a will or by a legal authority.

Held
A situation where a security is temporarily unavailable for trading.

Held-to-Maturity Securities
Debt securities that a firm has the ability and intent to hold until maturity.

Hell or High Water Contract
A non-cancelable contract whereby the purchaser must make the specified payments to the seller, regardless of any difficulties they may encounter.

Help Wanted Index
An index published monthly by the Conference Board that shows the total number of help-wanted advertisements occurring monthly in 51 major newspapers from around the country.

Herd Instinct
A mentality characterized by a lack of individuality, causing people to think and act like the general population.

Herfindahl-Hirschman Index - HHI
A commonly accepted measure of market concentration. It is calculated by squaring the market share of each firm competing in a market, and then summing the resulting numbers. The HHI can range from a minimum of close to 0 to a maximum of 10,000. The HHI is expressed as: HHI = s1^2 + s2^2 + s3^2 + ... + sn^2 (where sn is the market share of the ith firm). The U.S. Department of Justice uses the HHI for evaluating mergers. They consider a result of less than 1,000 to be a competitive marketplace, a result of 1,000 - 1,800 to be a moderately concentrated marketplace, and a result of 1,800 or greater to be a highly concentrated marketplace. As a general rule, mergers that increase the HHI by more than 100 points in concentrated markets raise antitrust concerns.


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Hidden Values
Assets that may be undervalued on a company's balance sheet and therefore not incorporated into or reflected in the company's share price.

High Beta Index
An index composed of companies with high betas trading on the NYSE.

High Close
A tactic used by stock manipulators. They make small trades at high prices during the final minutes of trading to give the impression that the stock did very good.

High Watermark
The highest peak in value that an investment fund/account has reached. This term is often used in the context of fund manager compensation, which is performance based.

HKD
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Hong Kong Dollar.

HNL
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Honduran Lempira.

Hobby Loss
A non-deductible loss incurred as a result of a personal hobby.

Hockey Stick Bidding
An anti-competitive bidding practice of a market participant (or trader) offering an extremely high price for a small portion of a good. The name derives from the price curve of this practice, which resembles a hockey stick.

Hold
An analyst recommendation to neither buy nor sell a security.

Holder of Record
The name of the person who is the registered owner of a security.


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Holding Company
A parent corporation that owns enough voting stock in another corporation to control its board of directors (and, therefore, controls its policies and management).

Holding Period
The time (or expected time) that an asset will be held for.

Holding Period Return/Yield
The total return received from holding an asset.

Home Office Expense
Expenses that result from the operation of a business or the performance of employment-related activities within your residence.

Homemade Leverage
A substitution of risks that investors may undergo in order to move from overpriced shares in highly levered firms to those in unlevered firms by borrowing in personal accounts.

Homo Economicus
The rational human being that many economists use when deriving, explaining, and verifying their theories and models.

Honcho
A slang term describing the leader or person in charge of an organization.

Honorarium
Payment that is given to a professional for services which fees are not legally or traditionally required.

Horizontal Equity
The theory stating that people in the same income bracket should be taxed at the same rate.

Horizontal Integration
When a company expands its business into different products that are similar to current lines.


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Horizontal Market
A market diversified so that the products created are able to meet the needs of more than one industry.

Horizontal Merger
A merger occurring between companies producing similar goods or offering similar services.

Horizontal Spread
An options strategy involving the simultaneous purchase and sale of two options of the same type, having the same strike price, but different expiration dates.

Hostile Takeover
A takeover attempt that is strongly resisted by the target firm.

Hot Issue
An issue that sells at a premium over the public offering price on the first day of trading.

Hot Money
Money that flows regularly between financial markets in search for the highest short term interest rates possible.

Hounding Analysts
A slang phrase that refers to the relentless phone calls that some hedge fund managers make to analysts in an attempt to persuade the analysts to change their rating on a stock.

House Call
Notification from a broker that a customer's equity in a margin account is below the required maintenance level. The customer must provide more cash or securities to meet a house call.

House Excess
A term used by brokerage houses to describe the amount you are in excess of the minimum margin requirements, based upon the last days closing prices of your portfolio.

House Poor
Describes a person who directs a large portion of his or her income to home ownership.


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Household Expenses
A per person breakdown of general living expenses. It includes the amount paid for lodging, food consumed within the home, utilities paid, and other expenses. The sum of all the expenses is then divided by the number of family members residing in the house in order to find each member's part of the total expense.

Housing Bonds
Bonds that are secured by mortgage re-payments on homes or rental properties.

Housing Market Index
An index of over 300 home builders, it shows the demand for new homes. The index runs between 0 - 100, so a rating of 50 means that demand for new homes is average.

Housing Starts
The number of residential building construction projects that have begun during any particular month.

Housing Unit
A house, apartment, mobile home, trailer, group of rooms, or single room occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are classified as a place where the occupants do not live and eat with any other person in the structure.

HTG
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Haitian Gourde.

HUF
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Hungarian Forint.

Human Capital
When the personal attributes of an individual are valuable in an economic context. An example is educational achievement where this investment is rewarded with returns of wage and salary.

Hundred Weight - Cwt
A unit of weight measurement created by U.S. merchants in the late 1800s. A hundred weight is equal to exactly 100 pounds.

Hurdle Rate
The minimum amount of return that a person requires before they will make an investment in something.


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Hybrid Security
A security that combines two or more different financial instruments.

Hyperinflation
Extremely rapid or out of control inflation.

HyperText Markup Language - HTML
The authoring language used in the creation of documents for the World Wide Web.

Hypothecation
When a person pledges a mortgage as collateral for a loan. It also refers to the right that a banker has to liquidate goods if you fail to service a loan.





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