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Terms starting with 'N'
N
A NASDAQ stock symbol specifying that it is the company's third class of preferred shares.

NAD
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Namibia Dollar.

Naked Call
A call option position held by a writer who does not hold a long position in the stock on which the call has been written. Sometimes referred to as an "uncovered call."

Naked Option
An option position where the buyer or seller has no underlying security position.

Naked Position
A securities position that is not hedged from market risk.

Naked Put
A put option whose writer does not have a short position in the stock on which he or she has written the put. Sometimes referred to as an "uncovered put."

Naked Shorting
The illegal practice of short selling shares that have not been affirmatively determined to exist.

Nano-Cap
Companies with a market capitalization below $50 million.

Narrow Basis
A condition found in futures markets in which the spot price of underlying commodities is close to the futures price of the same contract.

Narrow Money
Another term for M1, the category of the money supply that includes all physical money like coins and currency. It also includes demand deposits, which include checking accounts and NOW accounts.

Narrow-Based Weighted Average
An anti-dilution provision used to ensure that investors are not penalized by companies undergoing additional financing or issuing new shares. A narrow-based weighted average takes into account only the total number of outstanding preferred shares when deriving the new weighted average price for the old shares.


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NASDAQ
Created in 1971, the NASDAQ was the world's first electronic stock market. The NASDAQ is a computerized system that facilitates trading and provides price quotations on some 5,000 of the more actively traded over-the-counter stocks.

NASDAQ National Market Securities - NASDAQ-NM
The NASDAQ National Market consists of over 3000 companies that have a national or international shareholder base, meet stringent financial requirements, and agree to specific corporate governance standards.

National Association of Securities Dealers - NASD
A self-regulatory organization of the securities industry responsible for the operation and regulation of the NASDAQ stock market and over-the-counter markets. They also administrate exams for investment professionals, such as the series 7 exam.

National Best Bid and Offer - NBBO
A term applying to the SEC requirement that brokers must guarantee customers the best available ask price when they buy securities and the best available bid price when they sell securities.

National Futures Association - NFA
An independent self-regulatory non-profit organization that regulates the futures market.

National Market System
A system with two main functions: 1. To facilitate trading of OTC stocks whose size, profitability, and trading activity meet specific criteria.

2. To post prices for securities on the NYSE and other regional exchanges simultaneously, allowing investors to obtain the best price.

National Registration Database - NRD
A Canadian database that allows mutual fund salespeople and investment advisors to file for registration when they are applying for approval by a self regulatory organization (SRO).

National Securities Clearing Corporation - NSCC
A subsidiary of the DTCC, the NSCC provides centralized clearing, information, and settlement services to the financial industry.

National Securities Markets Improvement Act - NSMIA
Passed by the U.S. Congress in 1996, the NSMIA was an attempt to update and amend previous security acts and create one uniform code that could be followed by companies and regulators.

Natural Unemployment
The long-term sustainable rate of unemployment within an economy.


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Near Term - NT
Another term for "short term."

Negative Amortization
An increasing value of the principal of a loan resulting from re-payment amounts being smaller than interest accrued.

Negative Carry
A transaction where the cost of financing exceeds the yield earned in a securities or financial futures position.

Negative Covenant
A bond covenant that prevents certain activities, unless agreed to by the bondholders.

Negative Goodwill
A gain occurring when the price paid for an acquisition is less than the fair value of its net assets.

Negative Income Tax
A taxation system where income subsidies are given to persons or families that are below the poverty line.

Negative Obligation
An obligation of NYSE specialists to remain on the sidelines and refrain from acting as principal when there is sufficient market demand and supply to efficiently match orders.

Negative Pledge Clause
A negative covenant in an indenture, it states that the corporation will not pledge any of its assets if doing so would give the lenders less security.

Negative Volume Index - NVI
An index that focuses on days where the volume has significantly decreased from the previous day's trading.

Neglected Firm Effect
The phenomenon of less-known firms producing abnormally high returns on their stocks.


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Negotiable
1. A term relating to the price of a good or security which is not firmly established.

2. A term relating to a good or security whose ownership is easily transferable from one party to another.

Negotiable Certificate Of Deposit-NCD
A certificate of deposit with a minimum face value of $100,000. It is guaranteed by the bank and can be sold, but cannot be cashed in before maturity.

Negotiable Order of Withdrawal Account
A bank account through which the customer is permitted to write drafts against money held on deposit.

Negotiated Underwriting
A process of underwriting in which the purchase price and commission for underwriting a new issue are negotiated as opposed to bid for, which occurs in the competitive bid process.

Nervous Nellie
An investor who isn't comfortable with investing and the risks associated with it.

Nest Egg
A special sum of money saved or invested for one specific future purpose.

Net Asset Value - NAV
1. In the context of mutual funds, the total value of the fund's portfolio less liabilities. The NAV is usually calculated on a daily basis.

2. In terms of corporate valuations, the book value of assets less liabilities.

Net Asset Value Per Share - NAVPS
1. In mutual funds, the value of a mutual fund share. Calculated by dividing the total net asset value of the fund by the number of shares outstanding.

2. In corporate valuations, the net asset value divided by the number of shares outstanding.

Net Change
The difference between the closing price of a security on the trading day and the previous day's closing price.

Net Debt
Calculated as short and long term interest-bearing debt minus cash (and equivalents).


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Net Domestic Product
An annual measure of the economic output of a nation that is adjusted to account for depreciation, calculated by subtracting depreciation from the gross domestic product (GDP).

Net Exports
The value of total exports minus the value of total imports.

Net Income - NI
An individual or company's total earnings, reflecting revenues adjusted for costs of doing business, depreciation, interest, taxes, and other expenses.

Net Interest Margin
The difference between interest income and interest expenses, divided by average earning assets.

Net Interest Margin Securities - NIMS
A type of security that allows holders to access excess cash flows resulting from securitized mortgage loan pools.

Net Investment Income
The profit resulting from an investment minus any direct expenses.

Net Liquid Assets
A company's liquid financial assets minus its current liabilities.

Net Loss
The result that occurs when expenses exceed the income produced.

Net Operating Income - NOI
A company's operating income minus income taxes and minority interest.

Net Operating Profit After Tax - NOPAT
A company's potential cash earnings if its capitalization was unleveraged (that is, if it had no debt). NOPAT is frequently used in economic value added (EVA) calculations.


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Net Operating Profit Less Adjusted Taxes - NOPLAT
Total operating profits for a firm with adjustments made for taxes.

Net Present Value - NPV
An approach used in capital budgeting where the present value of cash inflow is subtracted from the present value of cash outflows.

Net Proceeds
The amount received after all costs are deducted from the sale of a piece of property, a loan, or some type of security.

Net Receivables
A company's accounts receivable (money owed to the company) minus any provisions for bad debts.

Net Sales
The amount a seller receives from the buyer after costs associated with the sale are deducted.

Net Tangible Assets
Calculated as total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities.

Net Volume
A security's uptick volume minus its downtick volume over a specified period. An indicator very similar to money flow.

Net Worth
The amount by which a person's assets exceed their liabilities.

Netting
1. Settling mutual obligations at the net value of a contract as opposed to its gross dollar value.

2. Reducing the transfer of funds between subsidiaries to a net amount.

Neutral
1) A term that describes an option on a security or market that is neither bullish nor bearish. 

2) A term that describes a person who is non-biased in the case of a dispute, such as an arbitrator.


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New Economy
A buzzword describing the new, high growth industries that are on the cutting edge of technology and are the driving force of economic growth.

New Issue
The event of a security being sold to the public for the first time.

New Paradigm
In the investing world, a totally new way of doing things that has a huge effect on business.

New York Board of Trade - NYBOT
A commodities exchange in New York that trades futures and options on sugar, cotton, coffee, cocoa, and orange juice, in addition to interest rates, currency, and indexes.

New York Mercantile Exchange - NYMEX
The world’s largest physical commodity futures exchange. Trading is conducted through two divisions, the NYMEX Division, home to the energy, platinum, and palladium markets; and the COMEX Division, on which all other metals trade.

New York Stock Exchange - NYSE
A corporation, operated by a board of directors, responsible for listing securities, setting policies, and supervising the stock exchange and its member activities. The NYSE also oversees the transfer of members' seats on the Exchange, judging whether a potential applicant is qualified to be a specialist.

NGN
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Nigerian Naira.

Nifty 50
The 50 stocks that were most favored by institutional investors in the 1960s and 1970s. Companies in this group were usually characterized by consistent earnings growth and high P/E ratios.

Nikkei
The leading and most respected index of Japanese stocks.

Nine Bond Rule
NYSE requirement that all orders for nine bonds or less be sent to the floor for one hour to seek a market, unless the customer directs the broker to go to the OTC market.


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NIO
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Nicaraguan Coroba Oro.

NMF
Abbreviation for "No Meaningful Figure."

No Par Value Stock
Stock that is issued without the specification of a par value indicated in the company's articles of incorporation or on the stock certificate itself.

No Quote
A designation indicating that no market makers are making an inside market at this time.

No-Load Fund
A mutual fund whose shares are sold without a commission or sales charge as the shares are distributed directly by the investment company.

Noise
Fluctuations in the market that can confuse one's interpretation of market direction.

Noise Trader
The term used to describe an investor who makes decisions regarding buy and sell trades without the use of fundamental data. These investors generally have poor timing, follow trends, and over-react to good and bad news.

Noise Trader Risk
A form of market risk associated with the investment decisions of noise traders. The higher the volatility in market price for a particular security, the greater the associated noise trader risk

NOK
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Norwegian Krone.

Nominal GDP
A gross domestic product (GDP) figure that has not been adjusted for inflation.


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Nominal Interest Rate
The interest rate unadjusted for inflation.

Nominal Quotation
A quote generated by a futures exchange or broker for contracts that have not traded for a specific period of time.

Nominal Value
The stated value of an issued security that remains fixed, as opposed to its market value, which fluctuates.

Nominal Yield
The interest rate stated on the face of a bond, it represents the percentage of interest to be paid by the issuer on the face value of the bond.

Nominalism
The principle of keeping the amount of a debt obligation fixed despite fluctuations in the money's purchasing power or exchange rate.

Nominee
A person or firm into whose name securities or other properties are transferred in order to facilitate transactions, while leaving the customer as the actual owner.

Nominee Dividend
A dividend that a person receives on behalf of someone else. If you pass the dividends on to another person, then you must file a Form 1099-DIV to get a dividend adjustment and thereby reduce your taxable dividend interest.

Nominee Interest
Interest that a person receives on behalf of someone else. If you pass the interest on to another person, then you must file a Form 1099-INT to get an interest adjustment and thereby reduce your taxable interest.

Non Deliverable Swap - NDS
Similar to a non deliverable forward, the only difference being that settlement for both parties is done through a major currency.

Non Performing Asset
Any asset that is not effectively producing income.


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Non Performing Loan - NPL
Loans that are in default or close to being in default.

Non Resident Alien
A person living and working in the United States who is not a US citizen or a permanent resident.

Non-Cash Charge
A charge off, made by a company against earnings, that does not require an initial outlay of cash.

Non-Client Order
An order that is for the account of a partner, director or officer of a firm. While these orders are allowed, priority must be given to client orders for the same securities.

Non-Competitive Tender
A method of distributing debt issues. Primary distributors request issues at the average price of the accepted competitive tenders.

Non-Deliverable Forward - NDF
A "synthetic" forward contract on a non-convertible or thinly traded currency.

Non-Directed Order
A customer order where specific instructions are not given, by the customer to the broker, pertaining to its routing destination.

Non-Elective Contribution
A type of contribution an employer chooses to make to each of his or her eligible employee's employer-sponsored retirement plan. The contribution is not based on salary reduction contributions made by the employee.

Non-Equity Option
A term for option contracts whose underlying securities are instruments other than equities.

Non-Financial Asset
An asset with a physical value such as land, property, or some type of object.


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Non-Negotiable
1. A term relating to the price of a good or security which is firmly established and cannot be adjusted.

2. A term relating to a good or security whose ownership is not easily transferable from one party to another.

Non-Operating Asset
Assets that are unnecessary to the ongoing operations of a business.

Non-Operating Cash Flows
Cash inflows and outflows related to non-current investments, financing, and dividends.

Non-Profit Organization
An association that is given tax-free status. Donations to a non-profit organization are often tax deductible as well.

Non-Qualified Distribution
1) A distribution from a Roth IRA that occurs before the Roth IRA owner meets certain requirements (see definition for qualified distributions).

2) A distribution from an education savings account that exceeds the amount used for qualified education expenses.

Non-Recourse Debt
A loan that is secured by some sort of collateral, usually property. The issuer can seize the collateral if the borrower defaults.

Non-Recourse Finance
A loan where the lending bank is only entitled to repayment from the profits of the project the loan is funding, not from other assets of the borrower.

Noncallable
Securities that cannot be called by the issuer prior to maturity.

Nonqualified Stock Options - NSOs
A type of employee stock option where you pay ordinary income tax on the difference between the grant price and the price at which you exercise the option.

Nonrecurring Charge
An expense occurring only once on a company's financial statement.


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Nontaxable Dividends
Dividends from a mutual fund or some other regulated investment company that are not taxed. Taxes are not paid out because the fund invests in municipal and other tax exempt investments.

Normal Course Issuer Bid-NCIB
When a company buys back its own outstanding shares from the markets so they can cancel them. The amount the company may repurchase is subject to regulatory approval.

Normal Market Size
A share classification structure based on the number of shares outstanding. This determines the number of shares that a market maker can trade at the quoted price.

Normal Yield Curve
A chart showing long-term debt instruments having higher yields than short-term debt instruments. Sometimes referred to as positive yield curve.

Normalized Earnings
1. Earnings adjusted for cyclical ups and downs in the economy.

2. On the balance sheet, earnings adjusted to remove unusual or one-time influences.

North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.

Nostro Account
An account that a bank holds with a foreign bank.

Not-Held Order
A market or limit order that gives the broker or floor trader both time and price discretion to attempt to get the best possible price.

Note
A debt security, usually maturing in one to 10 years.

Note Against Bond Spread - NOB
A spread within futures contracts created by offsetting positions in 30-year treasury bond futures with positions in 10-year treasury note contracts.


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Note Issuance Facility - NIF
A syndicate of commercial banks who have agreed to purchase any short to medium term notes that a borrower is unable to sell in the Eurocurrency market.

Notice of Seizure
A letter or written notice from the IRS informing the recipient that authorization has been given to liquidate his or her assets in order to cover the income taxes due.

Notional Principal Amount
In an interest rate swap, the predetermined dollar amount on which the exchanged interest payments are based.

Notional Value
The total value of a derivative's underlying assets.

Nova/Ursa Ratio
A sentiment indicator based on the Nova and Ursa funds from the Rydex Fund Group. The Nova fund is bullish with a target beta of 1.5. Whereas, the Ursa fund is bearish with a target beta of -1.0.

The Nova/Ursa ratio is arrived at by dividing the total assets in the Nova fund by the total assets in the Ursa fund. A high value is bullish and a low value is bearish.

Novation
1.The act of replacing one participating member of a contract with another.

2. The exchange of new debts or obligations for older existing ones.

NPR
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Nepal Rupee.

Nuncupative Will
A verbal will that must have two witnesses and can only deal with the distribution of personal property. A nuncupative will is considered a "deathbed" will, meaning that it is a safety for people struck with a terminal illness and robbed of the ability or time to draft a proper written will.

NYSE Composite Index
Measures all common stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange and four subgroup indexes: Industrial, Transportation, Utility, and Finance. The index tracks the change in market value of NYSE common stocks, adjusted to eliminate the effects of new listings and de-listings. The market value of each stock is calculated by multiplying its price per share by the number of shares listed.

NZD
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the New Zealand Dollar.





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