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Terms starting with 'O'
O
A NASDAQ stock symbol specifying that it is the company's second class of preferred shares.

Obligor
An entity that has an obligation to pay all principal and interest payments on a debt.

October Effect
A theory that postulates that stocks will tend to decline during the month of October.

Odd Lot
An amount of a security that is less than the normal unit of trading for that particular security.

Odd Lot Theory
Atechnical analysis theory/indicator based on the assumption that thesmall individual investor is always wrong. Therefore, if odd lot salesare up - that is small investors are selling stock - it is probably agood time to buy.

Odd Lotter
Anindividual investor who buys securities, usually stocks, in oddlots. This is the opposite of someone who buys securities in roundlots.

OEX
The ticker symbol for the Standard &; Poor's 100 Index.

Off-Balance-Sheet Financing
A way of raising money that does not appear on the balance sheet.

Off-the-run Treasuries
AllTreasury bonds and notes issued before the most recently issued bond ornote of a particular maturity. These are the opposite of on-the-runtreasuries.

Offering Circular
Anabbreviated prospectus for a new security listing. Delivered toindividuals and brokerage houses, these documents are issued to arouseinterest in the new issue.

Offering Memorandum
A legal document stating the objectives, risks, and terms of investment involved with a private placement.


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Office Audit
An examination of documents by the IRS for a matter that is considered to be reasonably simple.

Office of Foreign Asset Control - OFAC
Adepartment of the U.S. Treasury that enforces economic and tradesanctions against countries and groups of individuals involved interrorism, narcotics and other disreputable activities.

Office of Thrift Supervision - OTS
Thebureau of the U.S. Treasury Department that is responsible for issuingand enforcing regulations governing the nation's savings and loanindustry.

Offset
1. To liquidate a futures position by entering an equivalent, but opposite, transaction.

2. To offset an initial purchase, a sale is made; to offset an initial sale, a purchase is made.

Offshore
Located or based outside of one's national boundaries.

Offshore Mutual Fund
A mutual fund that is managed and housed in a foreign country, usually outside the U.S.

OHLC Chart
Shortfor "Open, High, Low, Close chart." This is a securities chart thatclearly shows the opening, high, low and closing prices for a security.

Okun's Law
A relationship between an economy's GDP gap and the actual unemployment rate.

Old Economy
Aterm describing the old blue chip industries which enjoyed fabulousgrowth during the early parts of the century. These companies areusually very traditional in their ways of doing business.

Oligopoly
When a particular market is controlled by a small group of firms.


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Oligopsony
Similarto an oligopoly, but where a small number of large buyers (not sellers)control a large proportion of the market and drive prices down.

Omega
Thepercentage change of an option’s value with respect to the percentagechange in the underlying price. It is the third derivative of theoption price, and the derivative of gamma.

Omnibus Account
Anaccount between two futures merchants (brokers). It involves thetransaction of individual accounts which are combined in this type ofaccount, allowing for easier management by the futures merchant.

OMR
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Omani Rial.

On Stream
An investment that is on track to earn its expected return.

On Track
1. A type of commodities delivery for futures contracts that is deferred and priced according to the seller's location "FOB."

2. The term used to describe physical commodities that are already loaded on railroad cars or trucks and ready for delivery.

On-Balance Volume - OBV
Amethod used in technical analysis to detect momentum, the calculationrelates volume to price change. OBV provides a running total of volumeand shows if this volume is flowing in or out. This indicator wasdeveloped by Joe Granville.

On-the-run Treasuries
The most recently issued U.S. Treasury bond or note of a particular maturity. These are the opposite of off-the-run treasuries.

One Night Stand Investment
Buyinga security with the intention of holding it for the long term, butsubsequently panicking and selling it the following day.

One-Cancels-the-Other Order - OCO
An order stipulating that if one part of the order is executed, then the other part is automatically canceled.


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One-sided Market
When the market for a security only shows either one bid or one ask.

One-Stop Shop
Aterm used to describe a company that can do everything for a person orclient. The idea is to provide convenient and efficient service forpeople.

Online Banking
The performance of banking activities via the Internet.

Online Trading
Making trades via the Internet.

Open
1. An un-executed order that is still valid.

2. The start of trading on a securities exchange.

Open End Credit
A pre-approved loan that may be used repeatedly up to a certain limit.

Open End Fund
A mutual fund that continues to sell shares to investors, and will buy back shares when investors wish to sell.

Open Interest
1. The total number of options or futures contracts that are not closed or delivered on a particular day.

2. The number of buy market orders before the stock market opens.

Open Listing
A property that is simultaneously marketed by multiple real estate agents.

Open Market Operations
Thebuying and selling of government securities in the open market in orderto expand or contract the amount of money in the banking system.Purchases inject money into the banking system and stimulategrowth while sales of securities do the opposite.


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Open Market Transaction
Anorder placed by an insider, after all appropriate documentation hasbeen filed, to buy or sell restricted securities openly on an exchange.

Open Order
An order to buy or sell a security that remains in effect until it is either canceled by the customer or executed.

Open Outcry
A method of trading on a commodity exchange by making verbal bids and offers in the trading pits.

Open Rotation
Orders to be executed only during the initial trading rotation of the specified day.

Opening Bell
A bell that rings to signify the day's start of trading on a securities exchange.

Opening Transaction
The initial or primary transaction of an options contract. Rights for a buyer are created as is the obligation of the seller.

Operating Cash Flow - OCF
Thecash generated from the operations of a company, generally defined asrevenues less all operating expenses, but calculated through a seriesof adjustments to net income. Also known as "cash flow provided byoperations" or "cash flow from operating activities."

Operating Cash Flow Ratio
A measure of how well current liabilities are covered by the cash flow generated by a company's operations.

Operating Earnings
Profitsafter subtracting expenses such as marketing, cost of goods sold,administration, and general operating costs from revenue.

Operating Expense
The essential things that a company must purchase in order to maintain business.


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Operating Income
The profit realized from a business' own operations.

Operating Lease
A lease contract that allows the use of an asset, but does not convey rights similar to ownership of the asset.

Operating Leverage
A measurement of the degree to which a firm or project relies on fixed rather than variable costs.

Operating Margin
A ratio used to measure pricing strategy and operating efficiency. Calculated by:
Illustration for Operating Margin

Operating Ratio
A ratio that shows the efficiency of management. Calculated as:
Illustration for Operating Ratio

Opinion Shopping
Acompany's action of searching for an auditor who will give a positiveopinion of the company's accounting practices (even though they mightnot deserve it).

Opportunity Cost
The difference in return between a chosen investment and one that is necessarily passed up.

Optimized Portfolio as Listed Securities - OPALS
A portfolio of securities used to closely track an index without the exposure of purchasing all securities within that index.

Option
Aprivilege sold by one party to another that offers the buyer the right,but not the obligation, to buy (call) or sell (put) a security at anagreed-upon price during a certain period of time or on a specificdate.

Option Adjusted Spread - OAS
Mainlyused for fixed income products, OAS measures the yield spread that isnot directly attributable to the fixed income's characteristics.


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Option Chain
A way of quoting options prices through a list of all of the options for a given security.

Option Cycle
Apattern of months in which option contracts usually expire (usually anine month period). There are three common cycles:JAJO - January,April, July, and OctoberMJSD - March, June, September, and DecemberFMAN- February, May, August, and November

Options Clearing Corporation - OCC
A clearing organization that acts as both the issuer and guarantor for option and futures contracts.

Options Contract
One options contract represents one hundred shares in the underlying stock. The quoted price of an option is per share.

Order
The instruction, by a customer to a brokerage, for the purchase or sale of a security with specific conditions.

Order Driven
An auction market where prices are determined by the publication of orders to buy or sell shares.

Order Flow
The directing of orders by a brokerage to different parties to be executed.

Order Splitting
Whenbrokers split up larger orders to qualify them for the Small OrderExecution System (SOES) and, therefore, have them automaticallyexecuted.

Ordering Rules
The order in which Roth IRA assets are distributed. Assets are distributed from a Roth IRA in the following order:

Orderly Market
Any market in which the supply and demand are reasonably equal.


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Ordinary and Necessary Expenses - O and NE
A tax provision for business expenses, it states that necessary business expenses are fully deductible as current expenses.

Ordinary Annuity
A series of fixed payments made at the end of each period over a fixed amount of time.

Ordinary Income
Income derived from regular business activities.

Organic Growth
The growth rate of a company, excluding any growth from takeovers, acquisitions, or mergers.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development - OECD
The OECD is a group of 30 member countries who discuss and develop economic and social policy.

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries - OPEC
Anorganization made up of some of the largest oil-exportingnations who coordinate their petroleum policies to managethe supply of oil in an effort to set the price of oil on theworld market. ;  ;

Original Cost
All of the costs directly associated with acquiring an asset and putting it into use.

Original Issue Discount - OID
Thediscount from par value at the time a bond or other debt instrument isissued. It is the difference between the stated redemption price atmaturity and the issue price.

Origination
The making of mortgage loans.

Oscillator
Atechnical analysis tool built with the results from a trend indicatorfor discovering short-term overbought or oversold conditions.


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OTC Options
Exoticoptions traded on the over-the-counter market, where participantscan choose the characteristics of the options traded.

Other Current Assets
A balance sheet item that includes the value of non-cash assets due within one year.

Other Current Liabilities
Abalance sheet entry used by companies to group together currentliabilities that are not assigned to common liabilities such as debtobligations or accounts payable.

Other Long Term Liabilities
A balance sheet item that includes obligations that do not currently require interest payments.

Out of the Money
1. For a call, when an option's strike price is higher than the market price of the underlying stock.

2. For a put, when the strike price is below the market price of the underlying stock.

Out Trade
Atrade that cannot be cleared by the associated exchange clearing housebecause of discrepancies between the data submitted by both parties onthe opposite sides of a transaction.

Out-of-pocket Expenses
An expense that an individual incurs for either business or personal usage. These expenses are tax deductible.

Outlay Cost
Any concrete costs that can be identified in the past, present, or future.

Outperform
An analyst recommendation meaning a stock is expected to do slightly better than the market return.

Outright Futures Position
A position in a futures contract that is not offset.


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Outside Director
Any member of a company's board of directors who is not an employee or stakeholder in the company.

Outside Earnings
The amount of income an elderly individual under the age of 70 has earned outside of his or her social security benefits.

Outside Reversal
A charting trend in which a stock price's high and low for the day exceed those of the preceding day.

Outsourcing
Apractice used by different companies to reduce costs by transferringportions of work to outside suppliers rather than completing itinternally.

Outstanding Shares
Thenumber of shares that are currently owned by investors. This includesrestricted shares (shares owned by the company's officers and insiders)and shares held by the public. Shares that the company has repurchasedare not considered outstanding stock.

Over the Counter Bulletin Board - OTCBB
Anelectronic trading service offered by the NASD. Traditionally home tomany small and micro cap companies, it is considered very high risk.

Over-hedging
Lockingin a price, such as through a futures contract, for more goods,commodities or securities that is required to protect aposition. While hedging does protect a position, over-hedging canbe costly in the form of missed opportunities.

Over-The-Counter - OTC
Asecurity which is not traded on an exchange, usually due to aninability to meet listing requirements. For such securities,brokers/dealers negotiate directly with one another over computernetworks and by phone. The NASD carefully monitors their activities.

Overadvance
When a company obtains a loan in order to increase their inventory prior to an expected increase in sales volume.

Overallotment
Selling more securities than are available in an IPO.


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Overbought
In technical analysis, it is a market in which the volume of buying that has occurred is greater than the fundamentals justify.

Overcapitalization
When a company has too much capital for the needs of its business.

Overcollateralization
The posting of more collateral than is needed to obtain financing.

Overdraft
An instant extension of credit from a lending institution.

Overhang
Calculatedas stock options granted, plus the remaining options to still begranted, and then divided by the total shares outstanding.

Overhead
A reference in accounting to all costs not including or related to direct labor, materials, or administration costs.

Overlapping Debt
Thedebt of a political entity such as a state where its tax base overlapsthe tax base of another political entity such as a city within thestate.

Overnight Index Swap
An interest rate swap involving the overnight rate being exchanged for some fixed interest rate.

Overnight Rate
Theinterest rate at which a depository institution lends immediatelyavailable funds (balances within the central bank) to anotherdepository institution overnight.

Oversold
Intechnical analysis, it is a market in which the volume of selling thathas occurred is greater than the fundamentals justify.


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Overstay
The act of holding onto an investment for too long.

Oversubscribed
When the demand for a new issue of securities (IPO) exceeds the number of shares issued.

Overtrading
1. Excessive buying and selling of an investors stocks by their broker, also known as churning.

2. When a company is growing its sales faster than they can finance them, this usually leads to enormous accounts payable.

Overvalued
A security that is trading above its intrinsic value.

Overweight
Refers to an investment position that is larger than the generally accepted benchmark.

Overwriting
Anoptions strategy that involves the sale of call or put options onstocks that are believed to be overpriced or underpriced. The optionsare not expected to be exercised.





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