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Terms starting with 'Q'
Q
A NASDAQ stock symbol specifying that a particular stock is in bankruptcy proceedings.

Q Ratio (Tobin's Q ratio)
A ratio devised by James Tobin of Yale University, Nobel Laureate in Economics, who hypothesized that the combined market value of all the companies on the stock market should be about equal to their replacement costs. The calculation is market value of assets divided by their replacement value.

QAR
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Qatari Riyal.

QQQ
The ticker symbol for the NASDAQ-100 Trust, which is an ETF that trades on the American Stock Exchange (AMEX). This security offers broad exposure to the tech sector by tracking the NASDAQ-100 Index, which consists of the 100 largest and most actively traded non-financial stocks on the NASDAQ.

Quadrix
A stock valuation system that uses over 100 variables in seven major categories to determine the value of a stock. The overall score for a particular stock is determined by a weighted average of all 100 variables.

Quadruple Witching
A day on which contracts for stock index futures, stock index options, stock options, and single stock futures (SSF) all expire.

Qualified Acquisition Cost
These are items, in the context of IRA withdrawals, that constitute penalty free withdrawals for an IRA owner who uses the assets to purchase a first home.

Qualified Adoption Expenses - QAE
Used for the adoption credit, this includes all the necessary expenses surrounding the adoption of a child.

Qualified Distribution
Distributions made from a Roth IRA that are tax and penalty free. In order to be a qualified distribution, the following two requirements must be met:

Qualified Higher Education Expense
Expenses such as tuition and tuition related expenses that an individual, spouse, or child must pay to an eligible post-secondary institution.

Qualified Institutional Buyer - QIB
Primarily referring to institutions that manage at least $100 million in securities including banks, savings and loans institutions, insurance companies, investment companies, employee benefit plans, or an entity owned entirely by qualified investors. Also included are registered broker-dealers owning and investing, on a discretionary basis, $10 million in securities of non-affiliates.


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Qualified Opinion
A statement written upon the front page of an audit done by a professional auditor. A qualified opinion suggests that the information provided was limited in scope and/or the company being audited has not maintained GAAP accounting principles.

Qualified Retirement Plan
A plan that meets requirements of the Internal Revenue Code and as a result, is eligible to receive certain tax benefits. These plans must be for the exclusive benefit of employees or their beneficiaries.

Qualified Savings Bond
Refers to a series EE savings bond which has been issued after December 1989 and purchased by an individual at least 24 years of age.

Qualified Special Representative Agreement - QSR
An agreement between broker-dealers to clear trades without the interaction of the NASDAQ ACT system. This is achieved by sending trades directly to the National Securities Clearing Corporation (a subsidiary of the DTCC).

Qualified trust
A trust whose underlying beneficiary may use his or her life expectancy to determine RMD amounts, including those for the beneficiary of a retirement account.

Qualitative Analysis
Analysis that uses subjective judgment in evaluating securities based on non-financial information such as management expertise, cyclicality of industry, strength of research and development, and labor relations.

Quality of Earnings
The amount of earnings attributable to higher sales or lower costs rather than artificial profits created by accounting anomalies such as inflation of inventory.

Quantitative Analysis
A security analysis that uses financial information derived from company annual reports and income statements to evaluate an investment decision.

Quanto Option
An option in one country's currency that pays out in another country's currency.

Quanto Swap
A dual swap combining both a currency and interest rate transaction.


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Quarter (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4)
A three-month period on a financial calendar that acts as a basis for the reporting of earnings and the paying of dividends.

Quarterly Income Preferred Securities - QUIPS
Shares that are an interest in a limited partnership that exists solely for the purpose of issuing preferred securities and lending the proceeds of the sales to its parent company. They usually have a $25 par value, NYSE listing, and cumulative quarterly distributions.

Quartile
A statistical term describing a division of observations into four defined intervals based upon the values of the data and how they compare to the entire set of observations.

Quick Assets
Assets that can be easily be converted into cash or are already in cash form. It is calculated as current assets minus inventories.

Quick Ratio
An indicator of a company's financial strength. It is calculated as:
Illustration for Quick Ratio

Quid Pro Quo
A Latin phrase that translates to "something for something." This term is used in financial circles generally to describe the mutual agreement between two parties in which each party provides a good or service in return for a good or service.

Quiet Filing
The name given to an IPO filing where important details are intentionally excluded. Sent to the SEC in order to begin the process of issuing a new security, these details must be submitted through amendments. This form of filing generally takes longer than the conventional methods.

Quiet Period
In terms of an IPO, the period where an issuer is subject to a SEC ban on promotional publicity. The quiet period usually lasts either 40 or 90 days from the IPO.

Quitclaim Deed
A deed releasing all of a person's interest in a property or land.

Quorum
The minimum acceptable level of individuals with a vested interest in a company needed to make the proceedings of a meeting valid under the corporate charter.


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Quota
In the context of international trade, this is a limit put on the amount of a specific good that can be imported.

Quote
Short for quotation, this is the current or delayed price being offered for a particular security.

Quote Driven
An electronic stock exchange system where prices are determined from quotations made by market makers or dealers.





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